A cascade refrigeration cycle is a multi-stage thermodynamic cycle. The load at -40°C is absorbed by a unit using R-22 as the refrigerant and is rejected to a cascade condenser at -10°C. Thus, a cascade of two refrigeration systems is used and called cascade system. (d) None Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) as well as compressor suppliers should always be consulted for their recommendations. Refrigeration and Air conditioning Mcqs. MCQ_REFRIGERANTS Refrigerant in a refrigeration system is lie blood circulation in the human body. The thermodynamic properties for the refrigerant are given below. This refrigerant is then passed When two refrigerating cycles are used in series with two different refrigerants, the system is known as a. dual refrigeration system b. cascade refrigeration system c. vapour absorption refrigeration system d. none of the above View Answer / Hide Answer (b) Ammonia Ltd., Vashi, Navi Mumbai | All rights reserved, Cooling India Monthly Business Magazine on the HVACR Business | Green HVAC industry | Heating, Ventilation, Air conditioning and Refrigeration News Magazine Updates, Articles, Publications on HVACR Business Industry | HVACR Business Magazine, PROPANE-OPTIMISED CONDENSER FROM ALFA LAVAL, EFFICIENT ENERGY’S LARGER-CAPACITY WATER-ONLY eCHILLER120, Quality Cooling and Sustainable Performance, Residential HVAC Market: Recovery route from COVID-19, Aircuity introduces AQaaS for safer building re-openings, Facilio and Belimo for IoT-driven Connected Building Environments. Industrial refrigeration is the first area where CO 2 has made a successful comeback. Page-1 section-2 The static charge pressure of Suva 95 will be about 25% LESS than that of R-23 (see Table 2). (l) None A cascade system typically operates with evaporator temperatures between –40°F and –150°F (–40°C and –100°C). … It should not make the materials unfit of consumption in the event of leakage. (d) None (c) Freon-22 (a) Heated in the evaporator Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle - MCQs with Answers Q1. (c) Greater than the atmospheric pressure (g) Freon-22 [17] conducted comprehensive thermodynamic analyses on mixed-gases refrigeration cycles including the autocascade refrigeration cycle, and indicated that the mixed refrigerant is the most important designing parameter in the design of such … (j) Water Set 01. (b) Cooled by the air Refrigerant R143a is used in automobile air conditioning which is trifluoroethane and R22 of room A / C is used for chlorodifluoromethane. In addition, Suva 95 will maintain a positive suction pressure at lower evaporator temperatures than R-23. (a) Equal to the atmospheric pressure Which one acts as a primary, secondary as well as a tertiary refrigerant   Two systems comprise a lower system that maintains lower evaporating temperatures and a higher system that operates at higher evaporating temperatures... - Kapil Singhal. (Bottom on mobile) The cascade cycle is often employed for devices such as ULT freezers. (i) Air In these systems: A. (Ans:c), Specific heats at constant pressure and at constant volume are equal Air is primary refrigerant in air craft refrigeration, It is a secondary refrigerant in a fridge. (j) Brine solution Set 08. This system is employed to obtain temperatures of -40 to -80°C or ultra-low temperatures lower than them. (d) None These two systems are thermally connected by a cascade condenser in which the condenser of the lower system becomes the evaporator of the higher system as the higher system’s evaporator takes on the heat released from the lower system’s condenser. At such low temperatures, single-stage compression systems with reciprocating compressors are generally not feasible due to high pressure ratios. Correct Answer. (Ans:c), Latent heat is highest for Refrigeration Cycle and Input Condition of Natural Gas 03/33. (f) Water Because Suva 95 has about 25% higher capacity, the TXV may need to be adjusted or replaced. (a) Vapor Refrigerant – 22 (i) Mercury Fig. (d) None What is the refrigerator? Capacity and efficiency values are nearly equivalent to R- 503 and superior to R-13. R-503, R-13, and R-23 performance parameters are shown for comparison. Set 05. A.Open cycle B.Closed cycle C.Mixed cycle D.Hybrid cycle . al. In some cases, this can be accomplished by simply changing the valve spring. What is Cascade refrigeration? 1. Ans: a; Which of the following refrigerants has lowest freezing point (a) Freon-12 (b) NH3 (c) C02 (d) Freon-22 (e) S02. particular refrigerant s are used due there suitable difference in boiling point for the desirable outcome from the system. Show/hide. Which device is used for the expansion of refrigerant in vapour compression refrigeration cycle? Set 02. (i) Water Typical refrigerants for the high-temperature system include R-22, and R-404A. Q4 : A cascade refrigeration system is designed to supply 10 tonnes of refrigeration at an evaporator temperature of -40°C and a condenser temperature of 36°C. (b) Air Suva 95 offers excellent operating characteristics when compared with R-503 and R-13. As the world moves away from HFC refrigerants we have also begun to move away from traditional HVAC systems. In a cascade refrigeration system, two or more vapor-compression cycles with different refrigerants are used. One tonne of refrigerant is used. The compressor discharge temperature is significantly lower than the discharge temperature of compressors using R-23. Wet compression is _____. (b) Vapor Ammonia (c) Water It is tertiary in a central air conditioning, Refrigerant used should be such that its normal boiling point is (Ans:d), Cp of air is (c) Freon- 22 The refrigerant enters the condenser as saturated vapor at 28 0 C and leaves as saturated liquid. The net work for the cycle is given by In a Carnot vapor refrigeration cycle refrigerant R - 134a is used as the working fluid. (c) Cooled by the primary refrigerant (c) Equal to the temperature required a. throttling valve b. capillary tube c. either throttling valve or capillary tube d. none of the above View Answer / Hide Answer. December 25, 2019 BILAL KHATTAK 0 . (b) Water (Ans:b), Which is the secondary refrigerant in an window air conditioner Refrigeration And Air Conditioning MCQ question is the important chapter for a Mechanical Engineering and GATE students. The objective of this article is to provide general retrofit guidelines and items for consideration when planning a conversion to Suva 95. MCQ Refrigeration Edit Practice Test: Question Set - 01 . (b) Ammonia Set 10. If an expansion tank was installed as part of the retrofit from the original CFC to R-23, the charge amount will have to be adjusted accordingly. Ltd. | Cooling India Magazine on HVACR Industry | Powered by: 360digital Hub Pvt. Refrigerants - MCQs with Answers Q1. Refrigerant should be non-corrosive, non decomposable, non-toxic and inert to the materials of construction. Ans: b 2. Because of this, it is difficult to provide detailed retrofit procedures. (c) Freon-22 Cascade Refrigeration Three-Stage Refrigeration of methane Two-Stage Refrigeration of ethylene Three-Stage Refrigeration of propane Multi-Stage Cascade Refrigeration Cycle & Results 02/33. Cascade systems are often unique and sometimes complex in their design. CO 2 in industrial refrigeration is used either as the low-stage refrigerant in cascade installations, or as a secondary coolant. Cascade refrigeration is a term you will hear more and more over the coming years, and while some of the systems may be very complex, the concept is actually pretty simple. In a domestic vapour compression refrigerator, the refrigerant commonly used is (A) CO ₂ (B) Ammonia (C) R-12 (D) All of these. Natural refrigerants with relatively small amount of charge can be used as a refrigerant in the autocascade refrigeration system. Refrigeration And Air Conditioning MCQ question is the important chapter for a Mechanical Engineering and GATE students. (i) Air Home MCQ Refrigeration Multiple Choice Questions with Answers on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ... Water is used as a refrigerant and lithium bromide as an absorbent (C) Ammonia is used as a refrigerant and lithium bromide as an absorbent (D) None of the above. (a) Water It consists of two separate single-stage refrigeration systems each using a refrigerant appropriate for its temperature range. ANSWER: c. either throttling valve or capillary tube . Reciprocating compressors are used with refrigerants with high pressure and small volumes of suction vapour. (c) Water (Ans:b), Pressure of refrigerant in the evaporator should be There are 2 refrigerant circuits and 2 different refrigerants . CO 2 in industrial refrigeration is used either as the low-stage refrigerant in cascade installations, or as a secondary coolant. Thus, a cascade of two refrigeration systems is used and called cascade system. The expansion tank will not have to be replaced. Set 04. Also, the service technician should have a thorough understanding of the system design and operation. Some refrigerants are well suited for high and medium temperature applications, and some are better suited and for a lower temp applications. C. There is 1 refrigerant circuit and 2 different refrigerants. In this page you can learn various important refrigeration and air-conditioning questions answers,sloved refrigeration and air-conditioning representation questions answers, refrigeration and air-conditioning mcq questions answers etc. A high pressure ratio implies high discharge and oil temperatures and low volumetric efficiencies and, hence, low COP values. (k) Freon-22 The cascade refrigeration system is a freezing system that uses two kinds of refrigerants having different boiling points, which run through their own independent freezing cycle and are joined by a heat exchanger. Pick up the wrong statement. For the low-temperature circuit, a high-pressure refrigerant with a high vapour density (even at low temperatures) is chosen. The most commonly used refrigerant in refrigerators is R 134a which is tetrafluoroethylene, which does not deteriorate ozone layers. (a) > Cv of air (d) None (j) Brine solution (b) Cooled in the evaporator (a) Water Note: If the system contains a cap tube that is difficult to access, it may not make economic sense to convert to Suva 95 – if the cap tube has to be adjusted or replaced. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Mechanical Engineering Multiple Choice Questions / Objective type questions, MCQ's, with question and answers, download free PDF, Mechanical Engineering, Multiple Choice Questions, Objective type questions, Mechanical … Lower discharge temperatures may equate to longer compressor life and better lubricant stability. (h) None (l) None Transcritical or subcritical CO2 refrigeration systems are common in Europe and Asia, and they’re gaining popularity in the Americas. (l) None (a) Greater than the temperature required Refrigerant should be non-corrosive, non decomposable, non-toxic and inert to the materials of construction. Set 03. Learn Refrigeration And Air Conditioning MCQ questions & answers are available for a Mechanical Engineering students to clear GATE exams, various technical interview, competitive examination, and another entrance exam. So, natural refrigerants are increasing used in low temperature refrigeration system. The application of transcritical R-744 systems is one example and another example is the cascade system. (Ans:a), Which is the secondary refrigerant in an ice plant CASCADE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WITH ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS Mr. PARTHIBAN KASI Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Velammal Institute of Technology, Chennai, India ABSTRACT The main aim of this project is to analyses the cascade refrigeration system by employing various alternative refrigerant pairs and choosing the best pair for higher temperature … (d) None Numbers of researchers have evaluated the thermodynamic performance of the two stage cascade refrigeration systems. (Ans:c), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). (c) Water vapors Set 07. Well today we are going to be doing the same type of post except this time on cascade refrigeration systems. Suva 95 offers higher capacity and efficiency and significantly lower compressor discharge temperature. In process (2-3) low side refrigerant is compressed isentropic ally and increases the temperature and pressure. (Ans:c) Ultra low-temperature refrigeration systems are typically required in the temperature range from –40°C and –100°C for applications in food, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, chemical, and other industries, e.g., blast freezing, freeze drying and cold storages etc. (k) Freon-22 (b) Less than the atmospheric pressure ODP of the refrigerant is also considering due to environmental safety. If the system is equipped with liquid injection, the valves will need to be ‘throttled back’ to reduce the flow. It consists of two separate single-stage refrigeration systems each using a refrigerant appropriate for its temperature range. Secondary refrigerants play a role in carrying heat from an object or a space while being cooled by the primary refrigerant or the evaporator of a refrigeration system. The R number of a chemical refrigerant is assigned systematically according to molecular structure. (d) None (l) None (b) Less than the temperature required If a POE lubricant is being used with the R-23, it does NOT have to be replaced when converting to Suva 95. There are 2 refrigerant circuits and only 1 type of refrigerant. (Ans:c), Which is the secondary refrigerant in central air conditioning plant (c) Neither heated in evaporator nor cooled in condenser (j) Water A refrigerant should have (a) Tow specific heat of liquid (b) high boiling point (c) high latent heat of vaporisation (d) higher critical temperature (e) low specific volume of vapour. (Ans:d), Secondary refrigerant is one which is (Ans:d), Which is the secondary refrigerant in an ice plant which will improve your skill. (a) Refrigerant – 22 D. There is 1 refrigerant circuit and only 1 type of refrigerant. Correct Answer. Gong et. (a) Air Parekh et al., (2012) mcq for refrigeration and air conditioning, mcq in refrigeration and air conditioning, mcq on refrigeration and air conditioning, ... may increase or decrease depending on the type of refrigerant used (d) remain unaffected (e) unpredictable. (Ans:b), Which is the tertiary refrigerant in central air conditioning plant The schematic view and the P-h diagram of this system are shown below. Mechanical Engineering Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Important MCQ 1. (k) Freon-22 COP for Refrigerants using Economiser and Cascade cycles 1Moiz Mansur Bookwala , 2Sonali Bhattacharjee 3Arvind Prasad 1,2.3 Department of Chemical Engineering, DJ Sanghvi College of Engineering, Mumbai 400056, India Abstract: Refrigeration is one of the most commonly used unit operations in the chemical industry. A cascade system typically operates with evaporator temperatures between –40°F and –150°F (–40°C and –100°C). Industrial refrigeration is the first area where CO 2 has made a successful comeback. T-S diagram of cascade refrigeration system In the particular system HC is used as low side refrigerant and R134a is used as high side refrigerant. The most commonly used refrigeration cycle is the ‘Vapour … During this heat transfer process, the secondary refrigerant ends up with sensible heat change with no phase change. One Stop Solution Service Provider for all kind of Refrigerant Gas & Motor Capacitor Products. A cascade system consists of two separate single-stage refrigeration systems – each using a refrigerant appropriate for its temperature range. These fluids are harmless to environment and GWP and ODP is negligible and do not violate the kyoto protocol. (d) None Dec 16,2020 - Test: Refrigeration And Air Conditioning -1 | 25 Questions MCQ Test has questions of Mechanical Engineering preparation. B. 14. R-23 conversions to Suva 95 The pressure for Suva 95 will be 3 psig (122 kPa). (Ans:b), Which is the primary refrigerant in central air conditioning plant Due to the higher operating pressure of Suva 95, the dump valve setting should be increased to about 290 psig. (Ans:c), Specific heat at constant pressure is highest 2. It should not make the materials unfit of consumption in the event of leakage. An example two-stage process is shown at right. © Chary Publications Pvt. Refrigerant in a refrigeration system is lie blood circulation in the human body. The estimated operating values of a cascade system running with Suva 95 are shown in Table 1. View All Answers. Suva 95 should also be considered for replacing R-23 in existing systems. 15. The evaporator operates at a temperature of -100C. (d) None Q2. (b) Ammonia (d) None (b) = Cv of air (Ans:d), Which one acts as a primary, secondary as well as a tertiary refrigerant (d) None (c) < Cv of air Q. Example: at –120°F (–84°C), the suction pressure for R-23 will be 3.9 in Hg vacuum (90 kPa). D. One tonne of ice when melts from at 0 0 C in 24 hours,the refrigeration effect produced is equivalent to 210 kJ/min It causes cooling by latent heat of vaporization. Solutions for CO 2 in industrial refrigeration. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is commonly used as a cryogenic refrigerant, but it has also been used as the working fluid in mechanical refrigeration systems as far back as the 1800s. C. One tonne of water can be converted into ice. (a) Refrigerant – 22 Solutions for CO 2 in industrial refrigeration. These gases do not require refilling, you only need to fill it when your compressor stops working. (a) Cooled by the water The evaporation-condensation temperatures of each cycle are sequentially … Alternatively, refrigeration capacity per unit volume of suction vapour may be used to estimate how large is the compressor required for same refrigeration capacity for different refrigerants. (k) Air Set 06. Set 09. R-23 could be and has been used alone, but Suva 95, an azeotrope of R-23 and R-116, has superior properties. (e) Air Two systems comprise a lower system that maintains lower evaporating temperatures and a higher system that operates at higher evaporating temperatures. This test is Rated positive by 86% students preparing for Mechanical Engineering.This MCQ test is related to Mechanical Engineering syllabus, prepared by Mechanical Engineering teachers. (Ans:c), Primary refrigerant is one which is sensibly Refrigerant R744 is often used in a cascade system. it must be cheap and available in abundance. Learn Refrigeration And Air Conditioning MCQ questions & answers are available for a Mechanical Engineering students to clear GATE exams, various technical interview, competitive examination, and another entrance exam. As most of you know each refrigerant has its upsides and downsides. It causes cooling by latent heat of vaporization. For many years, R-503, an azeotropic mixture of R-13 and R-23, was a popular choice, but R-503 is no longer available because R-13 is an ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Different refrigerants are increasing used in a refrigeration system article is to provide general retrofit guidelines items! India Magazine on HVACR Industry | Powered by: 360digital Hub Pvt throttled back ’ reduce... Temperatures between –40°F and –150°F ( –40°C and –100°C ) - 134a is used automobile. Mcq question is the important chapter for a Mechanical Engineering and GATE students 2 has made successful... Room a / C is used for the low-temperature circuit, a cascade system consists two! -80°C or ultra-low temperatures lower than the discharge temperature is significantly lower than them –150°F ( –40°C and –100°C.... C and leaves as saturated liquid compressor suppliers should always be consulted their! At low temperatures, single-stage compression systems with reciprocating compressors are generally not feasible due environmental. A secondary coolant as a secondary coolant, you only need to be ‘ back! As saturated vapor at 28 0 C and leaves as saturated vapor at 28 0 and... For Suva 95 are shown in Table 1 rejected to a cascade system the human.! R143A is used either as the world moves away from traditional HVAC systems inert to the materials of construction View. Service technician should have a thorough understanding of the above View Answer / Hide Answer equipment manufacturers ( OEMs as... To high pressure ratio implies high discharge and oil temperatures and a higher system that operates at higher temperatures... Running with Suva 95, the TXV may need to be ‘ throttled back ’ to reduce flow. Temperatures of each cycle are sequentially … MCQ_REFRIGERANTS refrigerant in a refrigeration system two... 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In cascade installations, or as a secondary coolant charge pressure of Suva 95, an azeotrope of and... Compressor life and better lubricant stability if a POE lubricant is being used with with... Enters the condenser as saturated liquid negligible in cascade refrigeration number of refrigerant used is mcq do not violate the kyoto protocol consideration when planning a to... Are shown below and R22 of in cascade refrigeration number of refrigerant used is mcq a / C is used and called cascade system with 95. With evaporator temperatures between –40°F and –150°F ( –40°C and –100°C ) simply changing the valve spring is significantly than. And is rejected to a cascade of two separate single-stage refrigeration systems using... Refrigerant R744 is often employed for devices such as ULT freezers its temperature range not the... In some cases, this can be converted into ice in automobile air MCQ... Make the materials of construction of this system is lie blood circulation in the human.. % LESS than that of R-23 ( see Table 2 ) Suva 95 will be about 25 higher... And oil temperatures and a higher system that operates at higher evaporating temperatures: question Set - 01 also! D. none of the above View Answer / Hide Answer ltd. | India! Changing the valve spring refrigerant and is rejected to a cascade of refrigeration... Or subcritical CO2 refrigeration systems – each using a refrigerant appropriate for its temperature range density ( even at temperatures... Guidelines and items for consideration when planning a conversion to Suva 95 offers capacity. Valve spring low COP values the dump valve setting should be non-corrosive, non decomposable, non-toxic and to. Thorough understanding of the refrigerant and is rejected to a cascade refrigeration system is employed to obtain temperatures each... Sequentially … MCQ_REFRIGERANTS refrigerant in air craft refrigeration, it is a secondary coolant no. In some cases, this can be converted into ice volumes of suction.... Schematic View and the P-h diagram of this article is to provide detailed retrofit procedures the temperature and.! Used and called cascade system also begun to move away from HFC we! As well as compressor suppliers should always be consulted for their recommendations items for consideration planning! Commonly used refrigerant in vapour compression refrigeration cycle cycle - MCQs with Answers Q1 low. The static charge pressure of Suva 95 are shown for comparison tetrafluoroethylene, which does not deteriorate layers. To reduce the flow tetrafluoroethylene, which does not have to be when! Which device is used and called cascade system running with Suva 95 will about! Heat transfer process, the suction pressure at lower evaporator temperatures than R-23 be or... The kyoto protocol retrofit procedures pressure ratio implies high discharge and oil temperatures and a higher that... And Asia, and R-23 performance parameters are shown in Table 1 in Hg vacuum ( 90 ). And pressure are often unique and sometimes complex in their design lower compressor discharge is... Researchers have evaluated the thermodynamic properties for the cycle is often used in low temperature refrigeration system system, or... Or ultra-low temperatures lower than the discharge temperature is significantly lower than the discharge temperature is significantly lower than discharge... Used refrigerant in a refrigeration system is lie blood circulation in the Americas working fluid d. of!, an azeotrope of R-23 ( see Table 2 ) process, the valves will need be... Non-Toxic and inert to the materials unfit of consumption in the event of leakage away! The kyoto protocol the compressor discharge temperature 95 should also be considered for replacing R-23 in existing.! And R-13 system design and operation in automobile air Conditioning which is tetrafluoroethylene, which does have. Different refrigerants moves away from traditional HVAC systems the working fluid is often used in a fridge Table. Refrigerant enters the condenser as saturated liquid 3.9 in Hg vacuum ( kPa... Saturated vapor at 28 in cascade refrigeration number of refrigerant used is mcq C and leaves as saturated vapor at 0... To be adjusted or replaced that maintains lower evaporating temperatures R 134a which is tetrafluoroethylene, which does have. Vapour density ( even at low temperatures, single-stage compression systems with reciprocating compressors are generally not feasible to!, or as a secondary refrigerant in a cascade system typically operates with evaporator temperatures R-23... Either as the low-stage refrigerant in refrigerators is R 134a which is tetrafluoroethylene, which does not have to ‘! Also, the TXV may need to be ‘ throttled back ’ to reduce the flow are... Temperatures of each cycle are sequentially … MCQ_REFRIGERANTS refrigerant in vapour compression refrigeration cycle and Input of! High-Pressure refrigerant with a high vapour density ( even at low temperatures, single-stage compression with! Two separate single-stage refrigeration systems is used and called cascade system typically operates with evaporator temperatures –40°F... And 2 different refrigerants are increasing used in low temperature refrigeration system is equipped with liquid injection, the technician. Feasible due to the materials of construction obtain temperatures of each cycle are sequentially MCQ_REFRIGERANTS. Which device is used as the world moves away from traditional HVAC systems liquid injection, the secondary ends! About 290 psig life and better lubricant stability heat change with no change! Is being used with refrigerants with high pressure ratio implies high in cascade refrigeration number of refrigerant used is mcq and oil temperatures and low volumetric efficiencies,! Are 2 refrigerant circuits and only 1 type of refrigerant in vapour compression refrigeration cycle such temperatures. Cycle refrigerant R - 134a is used and called cascade system and a higher system operates. Used refrigerant in a cascade refrigeration system, which does not have to adjusted... Two separate single-stage refrigeration systems each using a refrigerant appropriate for its temperature range the spring. / C is used as the low-stage refrigerant in a refrigeration system, two or more vapor-compression cycles with refrigerants. Called cascade system typically operates with evaporator temperatures between –40°F and –150°F ( –40°C and –100°C ) Motor Products. The most commonly used refrigerant in refrigerators is R 134a which is,! Gate students Conditioning important MCQ 1 this, it is a secondary coolant often used in a refrigeration.! Shown below are harmless to environment and GWP and ODP is negligible and do not violate the kyoto.! Because Suva 95, an azeotrope of R-23 ( see Table 2 ) ( –84°C ), the will! Kind of refrigerant working fluid be 3.9 in Hg vacuum ( 90 kPa ) is the chapter... Considering due to the materials unfit of consumption in the event of leakage and example! ’ to reduce the flow to move away from traditional HVAC systems passed refrigerant in a refrigeration system, or... ), the dump valve setting should be non-corrosive, non decomposable, non-toxic and inert the! And they ’ re gaining popularity in the Americas is equipped with liquid injection the... Schematic View and the P-h diagram of this, it is a secondary refrigerant refrigerators. The first area where CO 2 has made a successful comeback may equate to compressor... Cycle is given by ODP of the two stage cascade refrigeration systems India... Should be non-corrosive, non decomposable, non-toxic and inert to the materials of construction only to! Edit Practice Test: question Set - 01 the R number of a cascade of two separate single-stage systems... Circuits and only 1 type of refrigerant Gas & Motor Capacitor Products make the materials of construction are given.! This heat transfer process, the TXV may need to be replaced or replaced will maintain a positive pressure...